Akbar Zaidi Description This book is about understanding Pakistan's structural transformation over six decades in a political economy framework.
Health Sector Reform in Pakistan: Why is it needed? The health care system in Pakistan is beset with numerous problems - structural fragmentation, gender insensitivity, resource scarcity, inefficiency and lack of accessibility and utilization.
Moreover, Pakistan is faced with a precarious economic situation, burdened by heavy external debt and faltering productivity and growing poverty.
These circumstances, on the one hand, underscore the need for innovative health sector reform and, on the other, indicate the complexity of the task involved.
The recently announced Devolution Plan of the Government of Pakistan GOP that seeks to introduce elected district level local bodies, offers an opportunity to assess the existing publicly funded health care system and introduce far-reaching reforms to make it more efficient and effective.
Based on a critical analysis of secondary data from the public domain as well as from various research projects undertaken by the Aga Khan University, the paper intends to present convincing arguments for fundamental health sector reform in Pakistan.
Introduction Many countries, both developed and developing, are initiating health sector HS reform in varying degrees and forms.
Results are mixed; however, there is a broad consensus that without reform, the situation would have been much worse1. Pakistan has so far introduced little fundamental change in its health care system.
In the context of the recently announced Devolution Plan, it is imperative to carefully evaluate the need for health sector reform.
The Devolution Plan provides an opportunity to introduce far-reaching changes to make the health care system truly responsive to the needs of people. This paper makes a case for such fundamental HS reform in Pakistan.
The extremely precarious and deteriorating economic reality in Pakistan alone demands such restructuring and reorganization of its health care system.
Basic performance indicators of the health system also point to this need.
Methodology The methodology consists of extensive review of available information on the health and social sectors in Pakistan and selected other developing countries. Information generated by various research studies conducted by the Aga Khan University, particularly the Community Health Sciences Department, has also been used.
In short, the paper is based on critical review of secondary data. What is Health Sector Reform? In the broadest sense, the term health system refers to the totality of socio-cultural beliefs and practices, policies, programs, structural arrangements and institutions involved in the production and distribution of goods and services meant to promote health, prevent illness and treat disease.
However, the term is commonly referred to the health care system, both public and private. Health sector reform, therefore, means a meaningful change in the health sector with a view to improve its efficiency and effectiveness.
HS reform, therefore, has numerous dimensions such as, financing, organization of service provision, use and demand factor and, most importantly, the package of services to be offered. Reform may encompass one or more of the dimensions or all of them at the same time4.
The ultimate goal of health sector reform is to improve the aggregate health status of the population.Economy of PakistanThe economy of Pakistan is the 27th largest economy in the world in terms of purchasing power, and the 45th largest in absolute dollar terms.
Pakistan has a semi-industrialized economy, which mainly encompasses textiles, chemicals, food processing, agriculture and other industries. 5. The Crisis in the Pakistan Economy. Sushil Khanna. The Pakistan economy has been in a crisis for the last several years. Even the Supreme Court of Pakistan chose to justify its approval of the military takeover by referring to the crisis in the economy.
|Search This Blog||The number of confirmed WPV cases increased to in Also inPakistan began implementing a national action plan In response to the WHO declaring a global polio emergency.|
|Introduction||Hugh Patrick, Columbia University Simple analysis of the Japanese economy suggests simple causal relationships. Export success, excess domestic savings, low inflation and anemic growth are frequently linked in the media and commentary.|
|Alternative Names||History[ edit ] Beginning of the 20th century and until [ edit ] The first modern factory in Bulgaria was set up in Sliven in ; since then and especially after the s, the economy of Bulgaria as a whole was in a state of upswing, this being particularly felt in the early 20th century and especially in the s. During the s, the Bulgarian economy was described as an economy militarily bound to Germany.|
Bangladesh’s economic freedom score is , making its economy the th freest in the Index. Its overall score has increased by point, with improvements in the scores for judicial. Economic factors are perhaps the most compelling arguments for health sector reform.
Among the countries of the sub-continent, Pakistan’s economic performance over the last decade had been the worst. Between and , Pakistan’s total external debt increased from $ billion to $ . Pakistan has a large informal economy, which the government is trying to document and assess. Approximately 50% of adults are literate, and life expectancy is about 64 years or less.
Approximately 50% of adults are literate, and life expectancy is about 64 years or less. Thus Pakistan needs to overhaul its entire drainage and reclamation strategy reduce its cost and make it efficient. Significance of the agricultural sector in the economy Agriculture is an important sector, providing food to the fast-growing population of the country.