This article will briefly review the development of French education prior to the Revolution, and then place the contributions of the Revolution and Napoleon in their proper context.
Aquitaine Aquitaine under Rome had been in southern GaulRomanised and speaking a Romance language. Similarly, Hispania had been populated by peoples who spoke various languages, including Celticbut the area was now populated primarily by Romance language speakers.
Between Aquitaine and Hispania were the EuskaldunakLatinised to Vasconesor Basques living in Basque country, Vasconia, which extended, according to the distributions of place names attributable to the Basques, most densely in the western Pyrenees but also as far south as the upper Ebro River in Spain and as far north as the Garonne River in France.
The Romans were never able to entirely subject Vasconia. The parts they did, in which they placed the region's first cities, were sources of legions in the Roman army valued for their fighting abilities. The border with Aquitaine was Toulouse.
At aboutthe Duchy of Vasconia united with the Duchy of Aquitaine to form a single realm under Felix of Aquitainegoverning from Toulouse. This was a joint kingship with a Basque Duke, Lupus I. Lupus is the Latin translation of Basque Otsoa, "wolf".
As the Basques had no law of joint inheritance but practised primogenitureLupus in effect founded a hereditary dynasty of Basque rulers of an expanded Aquitaine.
Umayyad conquest of Hispania Moorish Hispania in The Latin chronicles of the end of Visigothic Hispania omit many details, such as identification of characters, filling in the gaps and reconciliation of numerous contradictions.
He chose to impose a joint rule over distinct jurisdictions on the true heirs. Evidence of a division of some sort can be found in the distribution of coins imprinted with the name of each king and in the king lists.
If the reigns of both terminated with the incursion of the Saracensthen Roderic appears to have reigned a few years before the majority of Achila.
The latter's kingdom is securely placed to the northeast, while Roderic seems to have taken the rest, notably modern Portugal. The Saracens crossed the mountains to claim Ardo's Septimaniaonly to encounter the Basque dynasty of Aquitaine, always the allies of the Goths.
Odo the Great of Aquitaine was at first victorious at the Battle of Toulouse in They took Bordeaux and were advancing towards Tours when Odo, powerless to stop them, appealed to his arch-enemy, Charles Martelmayor of the Franks.
In one of the first of the lightning marches for which the Carolingian kings became famous, Charles and his army appeared in the path of the Saracens between Tours and Poitiersand in the Battle of Tours decisively defeated and killed al-Ghafiqi.
The Moors returned twice more, each time suffering defeat at Charles' hands—at the River Berre near Narbonne in  and in the Dauphine in Loss and recovery of Aquitaine[ edit ] After the death of his father, Hunald I allied himself with free Lombardy.
However, Odo had ambiguously left the kingdom jointly to his two sons, Hunald and Hatto. The latter, loyal to Francia, now went to war with his brother over full possession. Victorious, Hunald blinded and imprisoned his brother, only to be so stricken by conscience that he resigned and entered the church as a monk to do penance.
The story is told in Annales Mettenses priores. Waifer decided to honour it, repeating his father's decision, which he justified by arguing that any agreements with Charles Martel became invalid on Martel's death.Charlemagne: Charlemagne, first emperor (–) of what was later called the Holy Roman Empire.
Feb 17, · Money makes the world go around, as the Vikings soon discovered. Gareth Williams accounts for the rise of Viking coinage. The Viking Age saw major changes in the economy of Scandinavia. At the. Introduction Charlemagne, also known as Charles the Great, was king of the Franks between and He was also the Christian emperor of the west between and Charlemagne founded the Holy Roman Empire, strengthened European economic and political life, and promoted the cultural revival known as the Carolingian Renaissance (“World Biography")/5(1).
Frisians - Introduction, Location, Language, Folklore, Religion, Major holidays, Rites of passage Mauritania to Nigeria. history of Europe: Charlemagne and the Carolingian dynasty Charlemagne and his successors also patronized a vast project that they and their clerical advisers called correctio —restoring the fragmented western European world to an earlier idealized condition.
The Life of Charlemagne: The Emperor Himself (c. ) Einhard Introduction The first "larger-than-life" figure of the Middle Ages, the emperor Charlemagne (r. ) expanded the political and military boundaries of the Frankish state significantly and strengthened the alliance between the Carolingians and the papacy forged by his father Pepin I (r.