It is a day to commemorate lives lost during the Sharpeville Massacre, and to reflect on our contemporary efforts to challenge racism and colonialism. In the spirit of this day, I would like to contribute to the ongoing Equity Matters discussions — for example, Martin CannonPaula Madden and Jocelyn Thorpe — around race, diaspora, Indigenous people and settler colonialism.
The History of republicanism in Canada Contrary to popular belief, republicanism is not new to Canada. This country has historically led the former British colonies in legislating independence and democratic reform, incrementally keeping us on the path to a republic since well before Confederation.
Chronologically, here are some of the more important historical events that have been significant in that evolution. Although archeological evidence indicates that many pre-Columbian North American peoples, particularly the Mississippian nations, had democratic forms of government, it was the Iroquois of the Great Lakes area who are best known for perfecting it.
Not only was its government directly responsible to the people and not to a chiefthe confederacy's elaborate and formal Haudenosaunee constitution shows close parallels to the executive, legislative and judiciary branches of government as described in the Constitution of the United States of America three centuries later.
Britain, which had been ceded Acadia in the Treaty of Utrecht insaw the mostly peaceful farmers and fishermen as a threat to its security.
In an act that today is referred to as "ethnic cleansing", families are uprooted and deported to the other British colonies, France and Britain, with many ultimately migrating to Louisiana and the French West Indies. Although their rich farmland was later granted to Loyalist refugees from the American Revolution, many Acadians found their way back to the Maritimes to re-establish their people and culture throughout Eastern Canada.
The contentiousness surrounding the Oath of Allegiance survives today and is one issue that fuels the modern Canadian republican movement. As British sympathizers, many had their property and possessions expropriated by the new American government and faced persecution from their former neighbours.
Both uprisings are crushed by British troops assisted by Canadian militias. Papineau and MacKenzie flee to the U.
The Battle of St. In his Report on the Affairs of British North America, in which he relies strongly on the advice of reformer Robert Baldwin, he argues that if the colonies were given as much freedom to govern themselves as the people of Britain, they would become more loyal.
Prior to this, the opposite was the norm in all the British colonies. These early principles of government form the cornerstone of Canada's current parliamentary democracy.
A majority of the elected assembly favour the bill but the governor, Lord Elgin, does not. Rather than disallowing it, as is possible under the powers granted to him, he is advised by his executive, which have the confidence of the Assembly, to sign the bill. Australia and New Zealand would follow Canada's lead and ratify similar legislations later.
The Provisional Government later agrees to enter into confederation as a province under the Manitoba Act. Although a small number of soldiers and personnel remain untilthe job of national defense is now up to Canada.
The title "High Commissioner" will later be used refer to all diplomatic missions between Commonwealth countries.
An indication that there still exists a premise of a functional British Empire, Commonwealth nations still use the term over the more accepted international title of ambassador. At the same time, the practice of appointing a British general to command the Canadian militia is ended and Canada assumes control from Great Britain of the last naval bases of Halifax and Esquimalt.
All others entered the war automatically without parliamentary consent. Of a country of only 8 million people, Canada sendsmilitary personal to Europe - fuelling nationalism at home and the front.
Canadians at the Somme in adians at the Somme — At the Imperial War Conference ofBorden is the key author of Resolution IX, affirming "the right of the Dominions to an adequate voice in foreign policy and foreign relations. Mackenzie King at the League of Nations.
As a result, Sir. Robert Borden is the last Canadian Prime Minister to be knighted. Although never officially ratified, since it did not advance to the Senate for approval, it established a precedent that has resulted in it being accepted as official Canadian policy. Sthe first international treaty negotiated by a Canadian representative without British involvement.
However, the treaty was still signed by the King as Emperor. Byng was later recalled to London as a result, with King, having won the election, following through on his vow to take steps to prevent any future governor general from refusing to dissolve parliament.
Since then, no governor general has challenged the authourity of parliament. The diplomatic mission in Washington is upgraded to legation status with the appointment of Vincent Massey as the first Canadian minister in At the time, this position was considered one notch below that of ambassador.
Following this appointment, the office in Paris was raised to legation status in and a legation was opened Tokyo in disconnection from land, culture and community by another group. It has its The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples grouped the history of colonization in Canada.
into four stages: • Stage 1: Separate Worlds (up to AD) COLONIALISM AND ITS IMPACTS Colonial . The History of republicanism in Canada: Contrary to popular belief, republicanism is not new to Canada.
This country has historically led the former British colonies in legislating independence and democratic reform, incrementally keeping us on the path to a republic since well before Confederation.
The Native Women’s movement was initiated when Native women became aware that they were discriminated against by Canada’s Indian Act on the basis of race, gender and marital status. The Indian Act is race legislation that defines who is an “Indian” and contains certain legal disabilities and legal rights for registered Indians.
Settler colonialism is a form of colonialism which seeks to replace the original population of the colonized territory with a new society of settlers.
As with all forms of colonialism, it is based on exogenous domination, typically organized or supported by an imperial authority. . This essay delves deeply into the origins of the Vietnam War, critiques U.S. justifications for intervention, examines the brutal conduct of the war, and discusses the .
American history is viewed through the lens of imperialism. Its relationship to Native American tribes can best be described as settler colonialism which is defined as a social structure, not an historical event.
The article defines two types of colonialism.